In general, the person who created the work (i.e. the author) owns the copyright in the work.
However, there are three situations where this to this general rule is not applied. i.e. where the creator of the work, by default, is not the first owner of the copyright.
If you created the works during employment, your employer will automatically own the work. This applies to all employees, except for journalists.
If you created the works while employed as a journalist by a newspaper, magazine or other periodical, and the work is created for the publication in these mediums, your employer will automatically have the right to publish and reproduce these works in publications.
However, you, as the journalist, still have the right to publish the work for other purposes such as collation into a book.
Some commissioned works
If you were paid under an agreement, for the creation of portrait, photograph or engraving, the person who commissioned or paid for the creation of these works will automatically own the copyright in those works. In short, the person who paid to create certain types of work would be the copyright owner.For all other types of works, ownership belongs to the commissioned party.
Rights of a copyright owner