Copyright protects the expression of ideas in tangible forms, including works like novels or computer programmes. Read on to find out more about copyright.

Copyright Resources

Chapter 1 - Copyright 101

1.1   What is copyright?
1.2   Who are the key players in Singapore's copyright system
1.3   What content does copyright protect?
1.4   How is copyright protection obtained?
1.5   Who owns copyright?
1.6   When does copyright expire?
1.7   When is copyright infringed and are there exceptions?
1.8   What remedies are available for infringement?
1.9   What do the copyright tribunals do?
1.10  What are moral rights?

We will be publishing subsequent chapters of this Infopack to explore in detail these basic concepts about copyright. In the meantime, if you would like to learn more about the Copyright Act 2021, such as the default ownership of commissioned works, the new moral right to be identified as a creator, and a new educational exception, please see our Copyright Act 2021 factsheet.





NSPs provide Internet access services and facilities for communication across networks, as well as for storage. As such, they are the repository and access point for a high volume of copyright works. Recognising the need to limit the liability of NSPs for infringement committed by their users, the Copyright Act provides NSPs with limited legal liability in copyright infringement suits, subject to the NSP meeting certain stipulated conditions. One of these conditions is that the NSP must designate a representative to receive any notice of infringement served by copyright owners.


Designated Representative

To enjoy the limited liability for the infringement of copyright content in the storage of materials or in linking users to materials made available on the Internet, an NSP must designate a representative to receive any notice of infringement served by copyright owners.

All designated representatives together with prescribed information thereof must be notified to IPOS and be listed in the PDF iconNSPeRegister and maintained by IPOS. To notify IPOS of the designated representative, the relevant NSP Form (under Forms & Fees under the Copyright Regulations 2021) has to be completed and submitted here. The administrative fee of $32 will apply.

You can expect to receive payment instructions via email within 3 working days after we receive your form submission.

For any queries relating to the submission of NSP form, you may contact us at and attention to NSP Secretariat or contact us at our Customer Enquiry Hotline (65) 6339 8616.


Copyright Owners

Infringement & Enforcement

Actions to take against copyright infringement

Copyright Resources

Access useful information and links on copyright

Copyright FAQs

Refer to commonly asked questions

Forms & Fees

View request forms and relevant fees

Copyright Tribunal

Forum for licensing disputes between collective management organisations and users