Copyright protects the expression of ideas in tangible forms, including works like novels or computer programmes. Read on to find out more about copyright.

Class Licensing Scheme for Collective Management Organisations (CMOs)

A CMO is appointed by rights owners to manage the rights in their copyright works or protected performances. A CMO administers the licensing of rights, collection of royalties, and enforcement of rights on behalf of these rights owners. A CMO will then monitor the use of the works and performances, and collect licence fees on behalf of the rights owners.

The Copyright Act 2021 (Act) introduced a regulatory framework for CMOs under a class licensing scheme administered by IPOS. Under this scheme, all CMOs must comply with applicable class licence conditions. This scheme is governed by the Copyright (CMOs) Regulations 2023 (Regulations). For more details about the scheme, please refer to our PDF icon Guide to the CMO Class Licensing Scheme (CMO Guide).

The class licensing scheme aims to inspire confidence in the collective rights management ecosystem in Singapore by promoting qualities such as efficiency, accountability, transparency, and good governance.

If you intend to use a copyright work or protected performance, such as music, sound recordings, or books, you will need to be authorised to do so, such as by obtaining a licence from either the rights owner directly, or from the CMO administering the relevant rights relating to your use of such works or performances.

Definition of a CMO

You will need to comply with the licence conditions if you are a CMO.

A CMO is an entity that is:

  • in the business of collectively managing the use of content (i.e. copyright works or protected performances;
  • made or given by different creators (i.e. authors, makers, publishers or performers) who are unrelated to the entity;
  • as the rights owner or with the rights owner’s authority, for the collective benefit of those creators or rights owners; and
  • which offers one or more tariff schemes to the public in Singapore.

An entity that meets all of the above criteria is a CMO, regardless of:

  • its corporate structure (e.g., whether it is a corporate or incorporate entity);
  • whether its collective management business is for profit or its sole or main business; and
  • whether it is constituted in Singapore or overseas.

The Regulations also prescribe 2 classes of Excluded Persons: subscription-based services and corporate groups. These persons are exempted from the scheme and need not comply with the class licence conditions.

Please see Part B of the CMO Guide for more information on who is a CMO. 

Class Licence Conditions

The scheme introduces a light-touch model of regulation, so CMOs will be automatically licensed as long as they fall within the definition of a CMO under the legislation. CMOs do not need to apply for a licence from IPOS or pay any registration fees to operate in Singapore. CMOs need only to comply with all applicable licence conditions.

The licence conditions regulate 5 key areas:

  • Members' rights;
  • Distribution of tariffs;
  • Dispute resolution;
  • Governance, records and reports; and
  • Information provided to the public.
Below is a snapshot of the licence conditions. For more information, please see Part C of the CMO Guide.

CMO main infographic

List of CMOs
CMOs operating in Singapore include the following:

 CMO and contact detailsWho the CMO representsRights the CMO administers

Composers and Authors Society of Singapore Ltd




Composers and lyricists

  • Reproduction rights of musical works
  • Reproduction rights of lyrics
  • Public performance rights of musical works
  • Public performance rights of lyrics

Music Rights (Singapore) Public Limited

Tel: (65) 6475 1181



Various major record labels 
  • Reproduction of karaoke videos and music videos for use on karaoke-on-demand systems in Singapore
  • Reproduction rights of sound recordings
  • Public performance rights of sound recordings (from 21 Nov 2021)
  • Public performance rights of films featured in music videos and karaoke videos

Copyright Licensing and Administration Society of Singapore Ltd

Tel: (65) 6403 3970 



Authors and book publishers
  • Reproduction rights of literary works featured in books, journals and periodicals

Motion Picture Licensing Company (Singapore) Private Limited

Tel: (65) 6392 0152



Over 800 Hollywood studios, independent, special interest, and local producers
  • Public performance rights of motion pictures and other audio-visual programs


To secure compliance with the licence conditions, IPOS is empowered to investigate and take regulatory actions against CMOs and their officers for any breach of the licence conditions.

For the purposes of regulation, each CMO must submit to IPOS an email address at which IPOS may serve documents on it. All CMOs should submit this email address to IPOS via email to before 1 May 2024. 

At first instance, members and users are empowered to hold CMOs to account for compliance with the licence conditions. IPOS will step in only if the parties are unable to resolve the matter through the CMO’s internal dispute resolution process. A member or user (including an intending user) who is aware that a CMO has breached a licence condition, and has exhausted the CMO’s internal dispute resolution process, may submit a request for investigation to IPOS. Such requests must identify the specific breach by the CMO, including the specific Regulation or Section of the Act, to be investigated.

The scheme does not intervene in fee-setting as CMOs remain free to determine the fees they charge for permission to use the works and performances they manage. Where a dispute on such fees arises, the Copyright Tribunals remain the appropriate forum for the resolution of such disputes.  

The flowchart below sets out a quick overview of the process of regulatory action against a CMO. The process may vary depending on the subject matter involved or the outcome of each stage. For further details, please refer to Part D of the CMO Guide.

Regulatory Action under the CMO Class Licensing SchemeAny regulatory action taken by IPOS must be complied with, even if a reconsideration application or an appeal is pending. However, a person affected by the regulatory action may request that IPOS (in the case of a reconsideration application) or the Minister (in the case of an appeal) suspend the regulatory action pending the relevant decision.

Please refer to the PDF icon Compliance Checklist for CMOs in the CMO Guide for a summary of the licence conditions CMOs must adhere to.

The forms relevant to the regulatory action will be made available before the regime takes effect on 1 May 2024.

The class licensing scheme contains a dual set of levers: licence conditions and best practices. Licence conditions are mandatory. Failure to comply constitutes a breach that may attract regulatory action by IPOS, such as financial penalties. In contrast, best practices are not mandatory. They are resources that encourage and assist CMOs to meet industry and international standards. If and when necessary and appropriate, certain best practices may be elevated to licence conditions subsequently.

IPOS will be working with the stakeholders of the collective rights management ecosystem to develop the best practices at a later stage. Please check back here later for the details on the public consultation exercise.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) & Summary of Key Changes

Please click PDF icon here for FAQs on CMOs, and PDF icon here for a summary of the key changes made to the consultation draft of the CMO regulations issued on 7 November 2022.

Copyright Owners

Infringement & Enforcement

Actions to take against copyright infringement

Copyright Resources

Access useful information and links on copyright

Copyright FAQs

Refer to commonly asked questions

Forms & Fees

View request forms and relevant fees

Copyright Tribunal

Forum for licensing disputes between collective management organisations and users